Aspects of Emotional Integration: in A Passage To India

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Class Conflict

      Chandrapore, where the scene of the novel is set, represents India. There was no harmony - religious, political or social, between the communities inhabiting Chandrapore. The Englishmen and women looked upon the Indians as belonging to an inferior race. The Indians disliked the English for ruling over them with force. The Muslims and the Hindus were also living in an atmosphere of mutual distrust and misunderstanding. The Muslims also considered themselves superior to the Hindus over whom their forefathers had ruled for two hundred years or more. Dr. Aziz often thought of his Afghan ancestors and wished they would come and rule over India again.

Political Consciousness

      Kipling wrote about an India that was enmeshed in the net of imperialism. When Forster came on the scene, India had become politically conscious. Many Indians like Dr. Aziz and Hamidullah had been to England and had seen with their own eyes what a free nation meant.

Mrs. Moore — Equality and Fraternity

      Mrs. Moore came to India to see her son Ronny Heaslop. Along with her came Adela Quested, to meet Ronny for marriage purpose. Both the ladies were shocked to know of the wide gulf separating the English from the Indians. Mrs. Moore advised her son Ronny to be pleasant and kind to the natives. She told him that all human beings are created by the same God. All are brethren and must be treated well. But Ronny could not follow her message of universal love.

Marabar Caves United Englishmen

      The Marabar Caves incident introduced the display of herd instinct. It united all Englishmen, barring Fielding against the Indians. The Englishmen felt humiliated at the thought of a white girl being attempted to be raped by an Indian. The group instinct enraged the Britishers against the natives. Similarly, all the Indians, whether Muslims or Hindus stood as one, in favor of Dr. Aziz. In this way, both the Indian communities came closer, and many misunderstandings vanished automatically.

Release of Dr. Aziz

      Almost all the Indians worked for the release of Dr. Aziz. A Hindu lawyer of repute Amrit Rao, from Calcutta was engaged for the defense of Dr. Aziz. Hamidulla also met the high-ups in authority for Dr. Aziz. The Hindu lawyer from Calcutta engaged for Aziz, fought the legal battle well. This unity was a challenge to the British might.

Change in the Natives

      The Muslims considered the Hindus to be dirty and the carriers of diseases. Dr. Aziz criticized the Bhattacharya's for not sending a coach for Mrs. Moore on the ground that the Bhattacharya's residence must have been dirty and that is why the coach was not sent. Dr. Aziz, after the trial scene, became more silent. Prof. Godbole got a very good job for Aziz in the state of Mau.

Friendship between Equals

      Friendship can last only between equals. Dr. Aziz left the British India and joined the medical service in the state of Mau. Fielding came to Mau on inspection. He had been to England where he had married the daughter of Mrs. Moore. Fielding wanted to revive the old friendship with Aziz but Aziz objected saying that there could be no friendship between them as long as the Britishers were the masters and the Indians were the slaves. Aziz had become a staunch nationalist and wanted India for the Indians. He wanted every Englishman to be kicked in the sea.

Mrs. Moore —the Symbol of Unity

      Mrs. Moore, after her death brought about a rapprochement between her son and Dr. Aziz. Because of Mrs. Moore, Dr. Aziz pardoned Adela and withdrew his case of compensation against her. The common man regarded Mrs. Moore as a just and truthful lady whose subtle influence had saved Aziz. They built two tombs for her and placed wreaths on them.

Emotional Integration Necessary

      It was a warning to the Britishers that Imperialism had exhausted itself and that they must adjust with the changing time. It was also a suggestion to the Indians that unity was the essential requirement for kicking out the Englishmen from India.


Discuss A Passage to India as a plea for men and women all over the world to save themselves from defeat and disaster by emotional integration.
In A Passage to India, the political situation is merely an external aspect of the deep-seated moral situation which is the author's real concern. Do You agree?
Describe briefly the aftereffects of Mrs. Moore's death on the people of Chandrapore and Ronny.
How did Adela's trial bring about closer relationships between the Hindus and the Muslims of Chandrapore?
Write a critical note on the message of emotional integration in A Passage to India.

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