Periodical Essay || Origin, Growth and Definition || 18th Century

Also Read

      Prose registered a distinct advance in the age of Pope. Joseph Addison, Steele, Defoe and Swift contributed to the development of English prose and prose acquired flexibility and ease for use for all practical purposes.

Prose registered a distinct advance in the age of Pope. Joseph Addison, Steele, Defoe and Swift contributed to the development of English prose and prose acquired flexibility and ease for use for all practical purposes.
Periodical Essay

       Rise of the Periodical press was an important factor for the expansion of prose literature. The first periodical published in Europe was the Gazetta (1536) in Venice. This was a manuscript newspaper. In England news sheets were published during the reign of Elizabeth, but they were irregular in their appearance, being issued only when some notable event, such as a great flood or fire made their sale secure. The first regular English journal was a weekly publication begun in 1622 by Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne who were authorised to print information on foreign wars.

      The political passions which led to the civil war (1642-1649) produced a spate of journalistic writing. The civil war gave rise to numerous ephemeral Posts, Spies and Scouts and to the Mercurius Aulicus (1643-1645) published on both sides. The Royalists published the Mercurius Aulicus, the Mercurius Academicts and the Mercurius Pragmaticus, while the Round heads replied with such journalist a The Mercurius Britaunicus and Mercurius Politicus. In 1655 Cromwell suppressed the licensed press with the exception of the official organ, The Public intelligance. Hem Muddiman was the greatest of all seventeenth century journalists who publish The Parliamentary Intelligencer (1659), The Mercurius Publicus and the London Gazere (1665).

      In 1682, the freedom of the press was restored and large numbers of Mercuries and other periodicals appeared. In 1702 The Daily Courant, the first daily newspaper was published. In the early years of the eighteenth century, the fierce contests between the Whigs and Tories brought rapid expansion of the press. The most famous of the issues were Defoe's Review (1704), a whig organ and the Examiner a Tory organ to which Swift and Prior contributed.

      In 1709 Steele published The Tatler. It was meant as a newspaper, but both Steele and Addison made the daily essay the chief feature. The Spectator begun in March 1711 carried the tendency still further. The literary journal became popular. Steele's The Plebian (1719) is an early example of the political periodical. Dr. Johnson started The Rambler (1750-1752).

Previous Post Next Post

Google Search