Victorian Poetry: Contribution of Major Poets & Poetry

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      The Victorian Era was a period when Queen Victoria reigned during a long period 1837 to 1901. Therefore and because of it the poetry that was written during this period was called Victorian poetry. "Throughout this era poetry addressed issues such as patriotism, religious faith, science, sexuality, and social reform, that often aroused polemical debate. At the same time the poets whom we classify as Victorian frequently devised experiment that expanded the possibilities of the genre, creating innovative forms and types of prosody that enabled new kind of poetic voices to emerge in print.

The Victorian Era was a period when Queen Victoria reigned during a long period 1837 to 1901.
Major Victorian Poets

      The Victorian poetry divided into main group of poetry the high Victorian poetry and the Pre Raphaelites. Dealing with first group the major high Victorian poets were Alfred Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Bennett (Browning), Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins.

      Queen Victoria's reign meet the idea of Empire appear in poetry. And one of the poets who you used it was Tennyson for Robert Browning the dramatic monologue was a great innovation but Alfred Tennyson invented and used it too. "To be a dramatic monologue a poem must have a speaker and an implied auditor and that the reader often perceives a gap between what the speaker says and what he or she actually reveals". Elizabeth Bennett (Browning) poetry voice important for the feminist literature because before her poetry, there were no too much poetry about feminism. Matthew Arnold was influenced by Wordsworth and often considered a precursor of the modernist revolution and Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote in a unusual style and influenced a lot of the 1940 poets.

      Victorian era does not have a topic in the poems about love and worship of nature as the Romantics had in their poetry. It is because the Romantics loved nature it was shown through their poems adoring and blessing her as if she were God. But in the Victorian poetry we have not found themes related to the topic of this paper, love and and what shape of nature because the victorians does not talk about her in their poetry. Therefore we will not relate this topic with the victorians poets refer to in the descriptions of places in the poem And The Love and worship of God, in comparison with love and worship of nature. Nature understood as part of God created by him maybe as a personification of God himself in the earth.

      It can be mentioned that, the selection of poems has been made talking only the topic of this work into account and not the importance of the poem itself in the poets poem. Then we are going to show two most important Victorian poets that refer to nature or that have aspects related with nature.

      Alfred Tennyson (1809 to 1892):- Tennyson was a poet Laureate of England by Queen Victoria, and become very popular in the Victorian public. He makes a reference to nature in the poem song "the winds as a their hour of birth". This poem is about that freedom that nature gives us. When we look at nature we feel free without any tie that blind us to live as happens in society, because we live with rules and we have to follow them. Therefore this freedom only can be found in nature, looking at the sea and the earth with its flowers. In Tennyson poetry this polished verses seem to express the important cultural social and religious concerns of the victorians.

      Robert Browning (1812 to 1889):- Browning got married with Elizabeth Barrett (Browning) poetry presents a wide variety of voice. He broke the mould of conventional Victorian poetic style and thus become an especially important influence on the great moderns. He makes another reference to nature in the poem Fra Lippo Lippi whose name makes reference to an Italian Renaissance painter Fra Flippo Lipi.

       The Victorians were influenced by the Romantics in terms of religion, and this poem shows us that love and worship that we are dealing with relating to nature in this paper, but in this case Browning has this feeling of love for God because he has created the world and all the things that live in it. Browning is talking to Fra Lippo Lippi the painter who as a painter and as a man has seen all the things that God has made for human beings. He is telling that the world of god is known in all places to understand the world of God the language does not matter is world his universal it does not matter. The language that you speak because you can understand him. Therefore, for Browning the world is a beautiful place then perhaps he might love nature looking at the river, mountains and at the sky create by his beloved God.

      Matthew Arnold   (1822-1888) was a significant writer of the Victorian era. He was at once a poet and a prose-writer. His poetry is reflective and intellectual, and in his prose writings, he tried to rouse the consciousness of the middle class sunk in materialism and complacency. Arnold's volumes of poetry include The Strayed Reveller and other Poems, Empedocles on Etna and other poems, Poems, Quiet Work, The Forsaken Mermon, To Merguerite, The Scholar Gipsy, Dover Beach are of his remarkable poems. Thyrses is a pastoral elegy and Merope is a verse tragedy written after classical models. Arnold's poetry is characterised by doubt and melancholy. Arnold felt the collapse of traditional faith and the breaking of bonds between man and God and between man and nature. He is a great humanist and a lover of Greek art and Literature. He was a classicist and his classic spirit reveals itself in the lucid style, in the restraint of passion and expression. His romantic spirit is expressed in his discontent with his generation and sadness that runs through all his poems.

      Arnold's The Study of Poetry in his Essays in Criticism states that the supreme power of poetry is 'consolation and stay', and that poetry will eventually replace religion. According to him the greatest poetry resides in the high seriousness of content and the architectonic skill. Milton is the master of grand style. In his critical essays on poetry his classical bent is revealed.

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